MINI-REVIEW OF HOW WATER SHAPES AND CHANGES OUR ENVIRONMENT
POINT AND NON-POINT POLLUTION
EXCERPT FROM: https://www.epa.gov/nps/basic-information-about-nonpoint-source-nps-pollution
Non-point source pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.
Nonpoint source pollution can include:
- Excess fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides from agricultural lands and residential areas
- Oil, grease and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production
- Sediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and forest lands, and eroding streambanks
- Salt from irrigation practices and acid drainage from abandoned mines
- Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet wastes and faulty septic systems
The term "point source" means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance (the movement of a pollutant from one place to another), including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. This term does not include agricultural storm water discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture. Also includes water discharged by industries, waste treatment facilities, leaking underground storage tanks, and a leaking oil tanker.